Thurgood Marshall Receiving NAACP Lifetime Membership Plaque from Carl Murphy

Thurgood Marshall Receiving NAACP Plaque from Carl Murphy, ca. 1956. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.A2-148.

Thurgood Marshall Receiving NAACP Plaque from Carl Murphy, ca. 1956. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.A2-148.

Before Baltimore native Thurgood Marshall (1908–1993) became the first African American U.S. Supreme Court justice, he was a lawyer directing legal operations for the NAACP from 1940 to 1961. Known for many of his great accomplishments during the struggle for civil rights, his most noted are the Murray v. Pearson (1936) and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954). In the former case, Marshall, along with Charles Hamilton Houston broke the walls of segregation in 1935 when they secured the admission of Donald Gaines Murray to the University of Maryland School of Law, which before then denied admission to African Americans. The former and most well-known Marshall case was a landmark decision that decreed separate public schools for African American and white students was unconstitutional in 1954.

Image information:

Thurgood Marshall receiving NAACP lifetime membership plaque from Carl Murphy [editor of the Afro-American newspaper]
Baltimore, Maryland
circa 1956
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.A2-148
Maryland Historical Society

The Charm Centre

The Charm Centre, 1948. Paul Henderson, MdHS, HEN.00.B2-164.

The Charm Centre, 1948. Paul Henderson, MdHS, HEN.00.B2-164.

The owners of this upscale women’s dress store, William “Little Willie” Lloyd Adams and wife Victorine Quille Adams, had impressive resumes that contributed to the civil rights struggle. Willie Adams, multi-million dollar illegal lotteries operator turned legitimate businessman, funded aspiring Black entrepreneurs during a time when banks would not lend to Blacks. He also funded desegregation lawsuits. Victorine Adams was a highly regarded woman for both her poise and political accomplishment. In 1946, she directed the “Register-to-Vote” campaign which resulted in thousands of new voters. She was the first elected woman of any race to be appointed to the Baltimore City Council in 1967.

Image information:

The Charm Centre

1811 Pennsylvania Avenue, Baltimore
September 1948
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.B2-164

Google Maps Street View of 1811 Pennsylvania Avenue today:

Sources:
Diminutive Mrs. Adams received ‘giant’ tribute. (May 10, 1958). Afro-American newspaper.
Smith, F. (2008). Here Lies Jim Crow: Civil Rights in Maryland. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Pietila, A. (2010). Not in My Neighborhood:  How Bigotry Shaped a Great American City. Ivan R. Dee, Publisher.

 

18th Annual Convocation, United Holy Church of America

18th Annual Convocation, United Holy Church of America, ca. 1930. Paul Henderson, HEN.09.09-006.

18th Annual Convocation, United Holy Church of America, ca. 1930. Paul Henderson, HEN.09.09-006.

The Black church is considered to be the focal point of the community’s social, political, and cultural life. Typically associated with collective action by Blacks, the church created a community of support, spiritual guidance, and other groups. Parishioners of Black churches throughout history took the lead in organizing their congregations in civil rights and political actions as well as spiritual revival.

Image information:

18th Annual Convocation, United Holy Church of America
Baltimore, Maryland
Not dated (ca. 1930)
Paul Henderson, 1899-1988
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.09.09-006.

Danny’s Shoe Store

Danny's Shoe Store, 1953. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.B2-264.

Danny’s Shoe Store, 1953. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.B2-264.

Presumably, the couple depicted are Daniel Siegel and his wife Ruth, who operated Danny’s Shoe Store from circa 1942 through circa 1948. Danny’s, next to Chen-Yu Beauty Salon, was located within walking distance from Pennsylvania Avenue and Henderson’s home on McCulloh Street.

Image information:

Danny’s Shoe Store
1108-1110 Laurens Street, Baltimore
February 1953
Paul Henderson, 1899-1988
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.B2-264

Pearl Bailey in her dressing room

Pearl Bailey in her dressing room, ca. 1942. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.A2-247.

Pearl Bailey in her dressing room, ca. 1942. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.A2-247.

This iconic photograph is seldom credited to Paul Henderson. Pearl Bailey (1918-1990), raised in Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia, was an entertainer who started singing in nightclubs, later taking parts in films and a leading role in the first all-black Broadway production, Hello Dolly! (1968). She played Smith’s Hotel and Cafe as well as Club Astoria in Baltimore.

Image information:

Pearl Bailey in her dressing room
ca. 1942
Paul Henderson, 1899-1988
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.A2-247
Maryland Historical Society

[Governor Lane meeting with the Board of Cheltenham School for Boys]

[Governor Lane meeting with the Board of Cheltenham School for Boys], 1951. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.A2-206.

[Governor Lane meeting with the Board of Cheltenham School for Boys], 1951. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.A2-206.

In 1948, Governor William Preston Lane, Jr. (1892-1967), seated second from right, appointed nine African Americans to the Board of Trustees for Cheltenham School for Boys after the entire board resigned. The correctional institution for young Black males was in dire straits when the new board took over. Members of particular note were Willard A. Allen (seated far left), president of Southern Life Insurance Company, and Violet Hill Whyte (seated second from left), the first black policewoman in Baltimore.

Image information:

[Governor Lane meeting with the Board of Cheltenham School for Boys]
State House, 100 State Circle, Annapolis, Maryland
February 1951
Paul Henderson, 1899-1988
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.A2-206
Maryland Historical Society

[Man pushing snowball cart]

[Man pushing snowball cart], not dated. Paul Henderson. HEN.00.A1-105.

[Man pushing snowball cart], not dated. Paul Henderson. HEN.00.A1-105.

West Baltimore’s Harlem Park was the first residential area in the Baltimore Urban Renewal Housing Agency’s 1959 program. Creation of “inner-block parks” as well as removal of shanties and reduction of density was the main focus of urban renewal for this area.

Image information:

[Man pushing snowball cart]. Harlem Park, Baltimore (north side of Edmondson Avenue, west of Calhoun Street)
Not dated
Paul Henderson, 1899-1988
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.A1-105
Maryland Historical Society

Dr. Lillie May Carroll Jackson

Jackson and Mitchell Family. Paul Henderson. MdHS, HEN.00.B1-052

This family has contributed a significant amount to the Civil Rights movement and the history of Baltimore. Keiffer Jackson (seated left), traveling church entertainer was husband of Dr. Lillie May Carroll Jackson (seated far right), President of the Baltimore Branch NAACP from 1935 to 1970. Their daughters Juanita Jackson Mitchell (seated second from left), the first Black woman to practice law in Maryland, and Virginia Jackson Kiah (seated second from right) worked together to create the City-Wide Young People’s Forum. Virginia was also a well-known artist. Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. (standing center), after whom the Baltimore City Courthouse is named, reported for the Afro-American newspaper before moving on to become an NAACP lobbyist in Washington, D.C. [Image: Jackson and Mitchell Family, not dated, Maryland Historical Society, HEN.00.B1-052.]

PHOTOGRAPHS AND AUDIO CLIP: Vernon Dobson speaking about Dr. Lillie May Carroll Jackson (McKeldin-Jackson Oral History Project, OH 8131)

Transcript:

Getting back to Dr. Jackson… understand the continuity of history, I would say that the thing that I think makes her leadership important in the Civil Rights Movement in Baltimore is that she made this a religion onto itself, this whole matter of civil rights. 

Wherever it was necessary for us to have a spokesman, she was that person. Our spokesperson. 

And wherever she felt the necessity for making some kind of appeal for equal rights and justice under the law, she did it. 

And many times, at a personal sacrifice. 

Largely [?] later on, the NAACP started getting funds from the churches so they were undergirded by church funds and that kind of a thing later on. 

Even then, she had to have the personal magnetism and persuasion to get church to give and to support. 

I used to always enjoy her coming to a large church meeting and just having her personality take over. 

Everybody would… any presiding officer would always use as a measure of his success to preside his ability to keep her down to… limit her to two minutes or three minutes and she would come in with a glimmer in her eye and look at him and say, “Young man,” he could be sixty, seventy years old, “Young man, you just got here. I’ve been in this struggle all these years.”

And then she’d go on to push him aside with a verbal barrage that would just reduce him to nothing and then would go on to make an appeal and it would always last fifteen, twenty minutes. 

Morgan State College (now Morgan State University)

Morgan State College basketball team, HEN.03.02-064

Class inside gym, Morgan State College. Paul Henderson. MdHS. HEN.06.04-015.

In 1867, the Methodist Episcopal Church opened the Centenary Biblical Institute to train young men in ministry. In 1890, after broadening its mission to educate Black men and women as teachers, the school was renamed Morgan College after the first chairman of its Board of Trustees and land donor, Reverend Lyttleton Morgan.

After a few decades, President John Oakley Spencer realized the college was outgrowing its space at Fulton and Edmondson Avenues and activated plans to move and expand. After learning of Andrew Carnegie’s speech in support of black education, the college contacted the philanthropist for financial assistance.

Carnegie agreed to provide $50,000 to the college for a new site only if the board met certain terms, including raising matching funds. The board pledged $25,000 and the public contributed the difference, with much-needed pleas for assistance from the Afro-American newspaper for this “praiseworthy object.”

After being prohibited from relocating to Mount Washington, a white Baltimore suburb, a parcel of land in northeast Baltimore became the best option. Fifty community members filed lawsuits against the move, including poet Edgar Allan Poe’s grandnephew and namesake. All attempts failed and Harry O. Wilson, Baltimore’s leading black banker, purchased the land for the college that became known as Wilson Park.

The college met all of Carnegie’s conditions and in 1917 moved to its present location. In 1939, the state of Maryland purchased the school after a study determined that Maryland needed to provide more opportunities for its black residents. Morgan State College is now Morgan State University, a public Historically Black (HBCU) research university. [Image: Morgan State College basketball team, 1951, Maryland Historical Society, HEN.03.02-064; Class inside gym, Morgan State College, 1955, Maryland Historical Society, HEN.06.04-015.]

The photographs below are only a small fraction of the additional photographs of Morgan State College by Paul Henderson:

Pennsylvania Avenue

Pedestrians on Pennsylvania Avenue. Paul Henderson. MdHS, HEN.00.B1-112.

Pennsylvania Avenue was the black community’s place for entertainment, retail stores, clubs, restaurants, and much more. Some businesses, however, upheld strict Jim Crow policies. In an effort to change policies, the self-described prophet, Kiowa Costonie, along with many organizations including the City-Wide Young People’s Forum conducted the “Buy Where You Can Work Campaign” in the early 1930s. The purpose of the campaign was to force white-owned stores in the black community to hire black employees. After picketing began, business owners headed to the courts to request they deem the picketing illegal. [Image: Pedestrians on sidewalk, 1600 block, Pennsylvania Avenue, March 1948, Maryland Historical Society, HEN.00.B1-112.]

More photographs of Pennsylvania Avenue by Paul Henderson: