Sewing, cleaning, and pressing class at Carver Vocational School

Sewing, cleaning, and pressing class at Carver Vocational School. Paul Henderson. MdHS, HEN.01.05-025.

Sewing, cleaning, and pressing class at Carver Vocational School. Paul Henderson. MdHS, HEN.01.05-025.

Established circa 1925, George Washington Carver Vocational [Technical] High School was the first vocational center established in Baltimore that was open to black students.

Image information:

Sewing, cleaning, and pressing class at Carver Vocational School
1200-1216 West Lafayette Avenue, Baltimore, Maryland
October 1949
Paul Henderson, 1899-1988
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.01.05-025
Maryland Historical Society

1200 West Lafayette Avenue via Google Maps:

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[Governor Lane meeting with the Board of Cheltenham School for Boys]

[Governor Lane meeting with the Board of Cheltenham School for Boys], 1951. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.A2-206.

[Governor Lane meeting with the Board of Cheltenham School for Boys], 1951. Paul Henderson, HEN.00.A2-206.

In 1948, Governor William Preston Lane, Jr. (1892-1967), seated second from right, appointed nine African Americans to the Board of Trustees for Cheltenham School for Boys after the entire board resigned. The correctional institution for young black males were in dire straits when the new board took over. Members of particular note were Willard A. Allen (seated far left), president of Southern Life Insurance Company, and Violet Hill Whyte (seated second from left), the first black policewoman in Baltimore.

Image information:

[Governor Lane meeting with the Board of Cheltenham School for Boys]
State House, 100 State Circle, Annapolis, Maryland
February 1951
Paul Henderson, 1899-1988
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.A2-206
Maryland Historical Society

Morgan State College (now Morgan State University)

Morgan State College basketball team, HEN.03.02-064

Class inside gym, Morgan State College. Paul Henderson. MdHS. HEN.06.04-015.

In 1867, the Methodist Episcopal Church opened the Centenary Biblical Institute to train young men in ministry. In 1890, after broadening its mission to educate black men and women as teachers, the school was renamed Morgan College after the first chairman of its Board of Trustees and land donor, Reverend Lyttleton Morgan.

After a few decades, President John Oakley Spencer realized the college was outgrowing its space at Fulton and Edmondson Avenues and activated plans to move and expand. After learning of Andrew Carnegie’s speech in support of black education, the college contacted the philanthropist for financial assistance.

Carnegie agreed to provide $50,000 to the college for a new site only if the board met certain terms, including raising matching funds. The board pledged $25,000 and the public contributed the difference, with much-needed pleas for assistance from the Afro-American newspaper for this “praiseworthy object.”

After being prohibited from relocating to Mount Washington, a white Baltimore suburb, a parcel of land in northeast Baltimore became the best option. Fifty community members filed lawsuits against the move, including poet Edgar Allan Poe’s grandnephew and namesake. All attempts failed and Harry O. Wilson, Baltimore’s leading black banker, purchased the land for the college that became known as Wilson Park.

The college met all of Carnegie’s conditions and in 1917 moved to its present location. In 1939, the state of Maryland purchased the school after a study determined that Maryland needed to provide more opportunities for its black residents. [Image: Morgan State College basketball team, 1951, Maryland Historical Society, HEN.03.02-064; Class inside gym, Morgan State College, 1955, Maryland Historical Society, HEN.06.04-015.]

The photographs below are only a small fraction of the additional photographs of Morgan State College by Paul Henderson:

Protesting Segregated Education and Teacher-Training Programs

Protesting segregated education and teacher-training programs. Paul Henderson. MdHS, HEN.00.A2-161

One of the first major battles of the Baltimore Branch NAACP was to champion the cause of many black teachers in public schools who received lesser salaries than their white counterparts. The NAACP fought for equal pay, equal facilities for learning, and equal teacher-training programs. The backdrop of this particular protest, Frederick Douglass High School, was established in 1883 as the Colored High and Training School and is the second oldest historically integrated high school in the U.S. Prior to desegregation, it was one of only two high schools open to black students. Parren J. Mitchell, brother of Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr., seen here at far left, graduated from Douglass High School in 1940 and in 1970 went on to become Maryland’s first black member of Congress. [Image: Protesting segregated education and teacher-training programs, 700-702 Baker Street, Baltimore, July 1948, Maryland Historical Society, HEN.00.A2-161.]

AUDIO CLIP: Parren Mitchell, Maryland’s first black member of Congress, speaks about his brother, National NAACP lobbyist Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. and his reaction after reporting on the lynching of George Armwood in Princess Anne, Maryland; the City-Wide Young People’s Forum and Thurgood Marshall; picketing at Ford’s Theatre. (McKeldin-Jackson Oral History Project, OH 8170)

More photographs of this protest by Paul Henderson:

Transcript:

“I love my brother very much as most people know. And to see him that evening at supper – my family ate all together – to see him not be able to eat because of that…

And the thing that I guess upset me most was that I didn’t know what a lynching was. I was a little child.

Whatever the thing was that had hurt him so badly, the fact that he was hurt, really started sparking my interest in this.

Then years ago, it must’ve been in the late 30s, early 40s… there was something in Baltimore known as the City-Wide Young People’s Forum and I remember my brother Clarence taking me there and I was young… but it was a fascinating experience to see black artists, black educators come and lecture, sing.

Out of that City-Wide Young People’s Forum, if you know, came the first challenge to the segregation of the University of Maryland Law School, the Donald Murray case.

Out of the participants of that Forum was Thurgood Marshall.

A whole host of… new level of leadership came in to the city as a result of that City-Wide Young People’s Forum. Although I was very young at that time, I was old enough to understand exactly what was being said in terms of the discrimination, the racism.

As a result of that, I remember one of my first picketing ventures was at Ford’s Theatre, when at that time black people could only sit in that third balcony.

I remember night after night being there on that picket line. The actual ugliness, the hostility on the part of some of the whites across the picket line or who just annoyed us because we were there… and then the encouragement that came from some of the others.

From that point on, it was just one thing after another. Once you got into it, events were breaking pretty fast.

That’s the way it happened.”

Maryland State Teachers College at Bowie [Bowie State University]

Women watching television, Maryland State Teachers College, HEN.00.B2-232

Beginning in 1865,  Bowie State University is one of the oldest historically black universities in Maryland. The Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of Colored People established the Baltimore Normal School to train black teachers in Baltimore. After moving to Prince George’s County, Maryland in 1914, the school also received a new name: Maryland Normal and Industrial School at Bowie. By 1935 it was known as the Maryland State Teachers College at Bowie. Over time, it expanded from a three year program and introduced programs to train teachers for junior high schools, secondary education, and liberal arts.

Source: Bowie State University

Image information:
Women watching television, Maryland State Teachers College at Bowie [Bowie State University]
Bowie, Maryland
1953
Paul Samuel Henderson, 1899-1988
Digital reproduction from 4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.B2-232
Maryland Historical Society