NAACP Membership Registration Campaign meeting

NAACP meeting. Paul Henderson. MdHS, HEN.00.A2-147.

NAACP meeting. Paul Henderson. MdHS, HEN.00.A2-147.

Founded in 1912, the Baltimore Branch of the NAACP is the second oldest in the country. In response to legal segregation in education, housing, and employment, Dr. Carl Murphy, editor of the Afro-American newspaper, called a meeting with fourteen community leaders in 1935 in an effort to revitalize the branch. Dr. Lillie May Carroll Jackson was one of the fourteen and from then until 1970, she would be president of the Baltimore Branch. The association’s membership in 1965 totaled 440,538 in 1,642 branches throughout the U.S.

Image information:

NAACP Membership Registration Campaign meeting
Baltimore, Maryland
October 1948
4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.A2-147
Maryland Historical Society


Pennsylvania Avenue

Pedestrians on Pennsylvania Avenue. Paul Henderson. MdHS, HEN.00.B1-112.

Pennsylvania Avenue was the black community’s place for entertainment, retail stores, clubs, restaurants, and much more. Some businesses, however, upheld strict Jim Crow policies. In an effort to change policies, the self-described prophet, Kiowa Costonie, along with many organizations including the City-Wide Young People’s Forum conducted the “Buy Where You Can Work Campaign” in the early 1930s. The purpose of the campaign was to force white-owned stores in the black community to hire black employees. After picketing began, business owners headed to the courts to request they deem the picketing illegal. [Image: Pedestrians on sidewalk, 1600 block, Pennsylvania Avenue, March 1948, Maryland Historical Society, HEN.00.B1-112.]

More photographs of Pennsylvania Avenue by Paul Henderson:

Clean Block Campaign

Clean Block Campaign. Paul Henderson. MdHS, HEN.00.A2-187

The Junior Department of the AFRO-AMERICAN newspaper launched the Clean Block Campaign on July 13, 1935 in an effort to encourage children to “wash their front steps and turn the hose on sidewalks and streets” during the summer months. The campaign hoped to encourage the community to demand the lessening of smoke and noises, prompt garbage collection, and upkeep of public squares. Clean Block campaigns sprung up in many large cities such as Newark, New Jersey; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Amherst, Virginia.

Source: AFRO-AMERICAN, July 13, 1966

Image information:
[Clean Block Campaign winner (center)]
Paul Samuel Henderson, 1899-1988
July 1948
Digital reproduction from 4 in. x 5 in. acetate negative
Paul Henderson Photograph Collection, HEN.00.A2-187
Maryland Historical Society